New method to make gallium arsenide solar cells

first_img(PhysOrg.com) — A new “transfer-printing” method of making light-sensitive semiconductors could make solar cells, night-vision cameras, and a range of other devices much more efficient, and could transform the solar industry. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. More information: Jongseung Yoon, GaAs photovoltaics and optoelectronics using releasable multilayer epitaxial assemblies, Nature, Volume: 465, Pages: 329-333, Date published: 20 May 2010, DOI:doi:10.1038/nature09054 This is a flexible array of gallium arsenide solar cells. Gallium arsenide and other compound semiconductors are more efficient than the more commonly used silicon. Credit: John Rogers Citation: New method to make gallium arsenide solar cells (2010, May 20) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2010-05-method-gallium-arsenide-solar-cells.html They have learned that if they press the stamp on the stack and lift it quickly it picks up only the top film. They then transfer the GaAs to the substrate by stamping it onto the surface and peeling the stamp back slowly. They could then build the devices such as photovoltaic cells, semiconductor field effect transistors and logic gates, and near-infrared imaging devices on the substrates. The method yields large quantities of high quality GaAs films, leaving the original wafer for reuse to grow more films.Using their technique, which is described in the journal Nature, the researchers succeeded in mass-producing tiny solar cells about 500 micrometers in diameter, and they also produced components for mobile phones and infrared-imaging devices.Rogers said GaAs has a great deal of potential in the future, and the team is now developing commercially viable solar cells that will be able to generate electricity for about $1 per watt. Image of a printed GaAs solar cell with a size ~10 x 10 mm2 on a glass substrate, with simple, metal grid contacts. Image copyright: Nature, DOI:doi:10.1038/nature09054center_img © 2010 PhysOrg.com Explore further A pile of gallium arsenide solar cells is manufactured in stacks and then peeled apart layer by layer. They can be integrated into a number of electronic devices. Credit: John Rogers IMEC unveils promising mechanically-stacked GaAs/Ge multijunction solar cell Scientists at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new and cheaper way of producing microchips of gallium arsenide (GaAs), a compound semiconductor that responds to light. Gallium arsenide is about twice as effective as silicon in converting incident solar radiation to light, with a theoretical conversion rate of up to 40 percent, and has for that reason been used in solar cells in space crafts. The problem with GaAs is its expense and the need for wafers to be grown in precisely controlled conditions. The wafers are sliced for use, but only the surfaces are used and the rest is essentially wasted. Now the Illinois research team, led by materials scientist John Rogers, has developed an alternative and potentially much more cost-effective technique involving growing stacks of layers of GaAs alternating with aluminum arsenide (AlAs). When the stack is complete, the scientists then chemically etch away the AlAs layers using hydrofluoric acid, leaving the films of GaAs, which they then peel off and stamp onto another substrate such as glass, silicon, or plastic using a silicon-based soft rubber stamp. Rogers and his colleagues have been working on perfecting the technique for around ten years. last_img read more

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Quantum effects lead to more powerful battery charging

first_img Journal information: Physical Review Letters Credit: CC0 Public Domain The researchers, Francesco Campaioli et al., have published a paper on the fast charging of nanoscale batteries in a recent issue of Physical Review Letters.Although a great deal of research has shown that quantum phenomena provide advantages in information processing applications, such as computing and secure communication, there have been very few demonstrations of quantum advantages in thermodynamics. In one recent study in this area, researchers showed that quantum entanglement can allow more work to be extracted from a nanoscale energy-storage device, or “quantum battery,” than would be possible without entanglement. In the new study, the researchers build on this result to show that quantum phenomena can also enhance the charging power of quantum batteries. They also found that the process does not necessarily require entanglement, although it does require operations that have the potential to generate entangled states.”Our work shows how entangling operations—that is, interactions between two or more bodies—are necessary to obtain a quantum advantage for the charging power of many-body batteries, whereas entanglement itself does not constitute a resource,” Campaioli, at Monash University in Australia, told Phys.org. “Additionally, we show that for locally coupled batteries the quantum advantage scales with the number of interacting batteries.”The quantum advantage is not without its limits, however, and the physicists derive the upper bound on how much faster a collection of batteries can be charged with the help of quantum phenomena. They show that for locally coupled batteries the quantum advantage grows with the number of interacting batteries. These bounds for the quantum advantage are based on quantum speed limits, which are used, for example, to estimate the maximum speed of quantum processes, such as calculations on a quantum computer. Here, the limit is for thermodynamic processes. Overall, the results may lead to methods of improving future nanoscale energy-charging processes, as well as to a better understanding of how quantum theory and thermodynamics are related.”Our result could be used to provide optimal charging for nanodevices that rely on batteries that consist of few quantum systems, such as charge qubits, ions or atoms,” Campaioli said. “Our plan for future research in this field is to provide a tight upper bound to the advantage that can be obtained by means of interactions between a finite number of bodies. Furthermore, we would like to obtain an experimental realization of the above-mentioned quantum advantage.” (Phys.org)—Physicists have theoretically shown that, when multiple nanoscale batteries are coupled together, they can be charged faster than if each battery was charged individually. The improvement arises from collective quantum phenomena and is rooted in the emerging field of quantum thermodynamics—the study of how quantum effects influence the traditional laws governing energy and work. Explore further © 2017 Phys.orgcenter_img For faster battery charging, try a quantum battery? More information: Francesco Campaioli et al. “Enhancing the Charging Power of Quantum Batteries.” Physical Review Letters. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.150601 This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Quantum effects lead to more powerful battery charging (2017, May 1) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-05-quantum-effects-powerful-battery.htmllast_img read more

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Skin wound regeneration with bioactive glassgold nanoparticles ointment

first_img Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are similarly becoming important in medicine due to their chemical and physical properties of biocompatibility, surface modification, stability and optical properties. Despite their challenging early translation in tissue engineering approaches, a low concentration of AuNPs can stimulate cell proliferation during wound repair. Preceding studies by the same research team showed that bioactive glass with AuNPs could stimulate the proliferation of human keratinocyte cells (HaCaT), which constitute 95 percent to 97 percent of the epidermis on the skin surface. In the present study, Marza et al. investigated the potential of dermal tissue regeneration in vivo. By day 14, they observed that both BG and BG-AuNP-Vaseline ointments could stimulate complete skin regeneration in experimental rat models, substantiated with gold standard histopathological analyses.Marza et al. freshly prepared spherical AuNPs ranging from sizes of 15 nm to 30 nm, confirmed using transmission electron microscope (TEM) micrographs to embed within the glass matrix. Using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) patterns of the glass samples, the scientists investigated the amorphous structures to identify the crystallization centers and the gold signature. The characterization studies for the composite samples also included Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), which provided spectra typical for a silicate network. To develop the glass composition ointment, the scientists dispersed the powder composite materials in Vaseline. They then used dynamic light scattering (DLS) to measure particle size distributions and corroborate the difference in sizes between the BG-Vaseline and BG-AuNP-Vaseline sample structures. After extensive materials characterization, the scientists conducted biofunctionalization studies in vitro with keratinocytes cell cultures to verify biocompatibility prior to conducting surgical procedures in a translational animal model. As before, Marza et al. investigated the proliferation of HaCaT cells on BG-AuNPs and obtained comparable results of good in vitro tolerance during keratinocytes proliferation on both materials (BG and BG-AuNPs). The outcomes substantiated the composites for use as ointments for in vivo investigations.To assess the healing potential of BG and BG-AuNPs in the Vaseline ointments, Mayer et al. formed composites of 6, 12 and 18 weight percent concentration. For comparison, the scientists used Vaseline as a positive control. In the rat models, the scientists carefully created four skin excision wounds by successfully replicating a previously published small-animal surgery protocol. They used a specific method on each rat when applying the ointment; (1) the upper left excision was kept as the control without ointment, (2) on the left lower excision, the scientists applied the BG-Vaseline ointment, (3) on the upper right excision, they applied Vaseline alone and (4) on the lower right excision, they applied the BG-AuNP-Vaseline ointment. The scientists used 30 rats in the study with 10 rats assigned to separate groups (6% BG-Vaseline and BG-AuNPs-Vaseline ointment; 12% BG/BG-AuNPs-Vaseline; 18% BG/BG-AuNPs-Vaseline). The working protocol was the same for each group. After ointment application, the scientists added sterile bandages to the wound sites on rats to prevent wound infection postoperatively and administered Tramadol subcutaneously as an analgesic. By day 13, the wounds were closed in all animals. After 14 days, they humanely euthanized the animals and conducted histological examinations to reveal mild inflammatory reactions and wound healing responses in the respective animal groups. In all groups, vascular proliferation was mild to moderate. Mayer et al. specifically observed largely complete healing with intact epidermis, dermis and skin appendages in the 18 percent BG-AuNPs-Vaseline group. They also observed a lack of vascular proliferation for this group, which they attributed to advanced healing and late vascular remodeling. In this way, Mayer et al. extensively characterized and established bioactive glass-gold nanoparticle based Vaseline ointments as promising materials for wound healing. The research team will conduct further studies to optimize the wound healing ointment for investigations in bench to bedside translation. © 2019 Science X Network The gold nanoparticles embedded in silicate bioactive glasses prepared by the sol-gel method. Image credit: Materials Science and Engineering: C, Credit: Biomedical Materials, doi: https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-605X/aafd7d Journal information: Nature Protocols Explore further More information: S M Mârza et al. Skin wound regeneration with bioactive glass-gold nanoparticles ointment, Biomedical Materials (2019). DOI: 10.1088/1748-605X/aafd7dK. Magyari et al. Novel bioactive glass-AuNP composites for biomedical applications, Materials Science and Engineering: C (2017). DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2017.03.138 Xusheng Wang et al. The mouse excisional wound splinting model, including applications for stem cell transplantation, Nature Protocols (2013). DOI: 10.1038/nprot.2013.002 A.C. Jayalekshmi et al. Gold nanoparticle incorporated polymer/bioactive glass composite for controlled drug delivery application, Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces (2014). DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2014.12.021 Wound healing—aiming for perfect skin regeneration. Science. 1997 Apr 4;276(5309):75-81. Bioengineers, materials scientists and life scientists who study the intersection of materials and medicine have developed autografts, allografts and xenografts for partial and full wound healing. Limitations of these procedures can delay the healing of large areas of skin defects and is a significant clinical problem in healthcare, due to the potential risk of antigenicity and disease transmission. Tissue engineering strategies for skin regeneration is a practical approach involving the use of bioactive biomaterials for assisted angiogenesis and faster revascularization. In a recent study, Sorin Marza and co-workers at the interdisciplinary research institutes and faculties of physics, bio-nano-sciences, pharmacy and medicine, developed bioactive glass-gold nanoparticles (BG-AuNPs) to promote the growth of granulation tissue and induce wound healing. In the study, the scientists investigated the impact of BG-AuNP composites as a topical ointment for 14 days on skin wound healing using an experimental rat model. Marza et al. developed a sol-gel of BGs and BG-AuNP composites mixed with Vaseline at concentrations of 6,12 and 18 weight percent (wt%) to understand the repair response of the skin. The scientists observed granulomatous reactions during the process of healing in the wounds treated with the BG-Vaseline ointment. The results are now published in Biomedical Materials, IOP Publishing.Angiogenesis, or the formation of new blood vessels from existing vessels is an important process during skin regeneration. Bioactive glass is responsible for local cellular responses due to in vivo degradation, stimulating the release of growth factors such as VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) and bFGF (basic fibroblast growth factor) to cause an angiogenic effect. A variety of studies on tissue engineering have demonstrated the benefits of bioactive glass in wound healing, based on results in animal models in vivo. In its principle of action, scientists have reported that bioactive glass stimulated the process by controlling the inflammation response to enhance the paracrine effect between macrophages and repairing cells. center_img Citation: Skin wound regeneration with bioactive glass-gold nanoparticles ointment (2019, February 14) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-02-skin-wound-regeneration-bioactive-glass-gold.html , Science Cells beneath the skin explain differences in healing This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Healing is a complex process in adult skin impairments, requiring collaborative biochemical processes for onsite repair. Diverse cell types (macrophages, leukocytes, mast cells) contribute to the associated phases of proliferation, migration, matrix synthesis and contraction, coupled with growth factors and matrix signals at the site of the wound. Understanding signal control and cellular activity at the site could help explain the process of adult skin repair beyond mere patching up and more as regeneration, to assess biomechanics and implement strategies for accelerated wound repair in regenerative medicine.last_img read more

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Researchers find a way to make Casimir effect attract or repulse depending

first_img More information: Rongkuo Zhao et al. Stable Casimir equilibria and quantum trapping, Science (2019). DOI: 10.1126/science.aax0916 A team of researchers from the University of California at Berkeley and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has found a way to make the Casimir effect attract or repulse depending on the size of the gap between two objects. In their paper published in the journal Science, the group describes their technique and possible applications. The Casimir effect, first proposed by Hendrik Casimir back in 1948, is the phenomenon in which two tiny surfaces in close proximity experience a force that pulls them closer together. Quantum fluctuations inside and outside of the gap push against the plates, but because those pushing from the outside are stronger, they create an attractive force between the two plates. The Casimir effect is more than a curiosity, because it can create problems in nanotechnology applications.Just two years after Casimir first proposed the effect, others in the field began making predictions about ways to counter it—making it repulsive rather than attractive, for example, in the case of fluids and plates made of lower refractive metals. Then, in 2010, a team at MIT suggested that it should be possible to counter both attractive and repulsive effects to create a state of equilibrium between the two plates. In this new effort, the researchers report that they have done just that.The work involved coating a gold plate with Teflon and suspending a tiny gold flake in ethanol just above it. They explain that because the Teflon has a lower refractive index than ethanol, it makes the two materials repulsive. But the interaction between the gold flake and the gold plate was attractive, creating a counter force. By placing all the components at just the right distance apart, they were able to achieve equilibrium. The system also allows for switching between the equilibrium state and either an attractive or repulsive state by moving one or more of the materials.The researchers suggest their technique could be used in nanomechanical devices or even in computers, where it could be used to reduce stiction, which is one of the primary causes ofcomputer crashes. Explore further The force is with us, always? Tuning quantum vacuum forces from attractive to repulsive Stable Casimir equilibrium enabled by a low–refractive index coating layer. (A) By coating a thin layer of Teflon on a gold substrate, a stable Casimir equilibrium is formed so that a gold nanoplate can be trapped at an equilibrium position in ethanol. (B) Casimir interaction energy between the gold nanoplate and the Teflon-coated gold surface.The Casimir force given by the derivative of the Casimir energy with respect to the distance is repulsive at short distances and attractive at long distances. (C) Thickness and surface profile of the gold nanoplate along the dashed line in the inset AFM image of the gold plate. Credit: Science (2019). DOI: 10.1126/science.aax0916center_img Journal information: Science Citation: Researchers find a way to make Casimir effect attract or repulse depending on gap size (2019, June 10) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-06-casimir-effect-repulse-gap-size.html © 2019 Science X Network This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

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For Kids With Anxiety Parents Learn To Let Them Face Their Fears

first_imgThe program was part of a Yale University study that treated children’s anxiety by teaching their parents new ways of responding to it. The first time Jessica Calise can remember her 9-year-old son Joseph’s anxiety spiking was about a year ago, when he had to perform at a school concert. He said his stomach hurt and he might throw up. “We spent the whole performance in the bathroom,” she recalls. Jessica decided to enroll in an experimental program, one that was very different from other therapy for childhood anxiety that she knew about. It wasn’t Joseph who would be seeing a therapist every week — it would be her. “The parent’s own responses are a core and integral part of childhood anxiety,” says Eli Lebowitz, a psychologist at the Yale School of Medicine who developed the training. — After that, Joseph struggled whenever he had to do something alone, like showering or sleeping in his bedroom. He would beg his parents to sit outside the bathroom door or let him sleep in their bed. “It’s heartbreaking to see your child so upset and feel like he’s going to throw up because he’s nervous about something that, in my mind, is no big deal,” Jessica says. The parent training seems to work because it lets children confront their anxieties while parents provide love and support from afar, says Anne Marie Albano, a psychologist at Columbia University who did not work on the study. Read the whole story: NPRlast_img read more

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Foreign artists Indian shores

first_imgIt’s raining foreign artists in the city and Delhiites seem to be lapping it all up. At Visual Arts Gallery, seven British artists are showing in a group show titled Critical Narratives in Colour and form, and each one of them reiterates the importance of ‘creating’ art with one’s own hand. In one of the mixed media paintings that Angus Pryor has created, he fills his canvas with motifs of bindus, swastikas, animal and birds — images that he has absorbed in Delhi. Pryor is also the curator of this show which is part of a two day workshop-cum-seminar organised by art curator Dr Alka Pande. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’‘I have been travelling to India for many years now and I found that there is a strong similarity in our practice of storytelling through art,’ says Pryor. The exhibition that boasts of other British artists like Mavernie Cunningham, Jez Giddings, William Henry, Mark Howland, Chris Hunt and Aya Mouri, hence, places a deliberate emphasis on painting and print making which was and continues to be an essential part of Indian art practice.In another group show titled Whose History, Which Stories — presented by Shrine Empire at The Stainless — curator Oindrilla Maity Surai has put together evocative videos, paintings and installations by five South Korean and five Indian artists. According to Surai, ‘The exhibition tries to find out the many similarities and idiosyncrasies that prevail in these two neighbouring countries. It is a platform where two neighbouring countries  come together through art.’ Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixFor instance, SangHwa Park’s videos from the Inner Dream series portray the pessimism of the 21st century. Science and technology have not associated themselves with well being alone. Desire continues to pervade society. War is also the subject for YoungTae Kim and ChangWon Lee’s photographs. They question the validity of war, the freedom fighter and their memories.The artist to watch out for, however, is Gim Gwang Cheol whose videos of his intensely charged performances question the human situation in a sprawling city that grows oblivious of its past, its sacrifices to earn a free nation state and what it actually promised to achieve. Gwang Cheol writes about his project: ‘That Hitler’s face is placed inside Marilyn’s mouth is itself illusion. It is an attempt to express rejection toward unconditional worship of any icon. Uncontrolled desire for power and fame violates life so I reveal these elements through my art.’ At Vadehra Art Gallery, a solo show titled Passageway by German artist Wolfgang Laib is on view. His works are studies of form, colour and material explore natural material such as beeswax, pollen, rice and stone. In Lado Sarai, Exhibit 320 is showing photographs by three Singaporean artists along with three Indians — Sumit Dayal, Ankit Goyal, Akshay Mahajan, Nguan, Carrie Lam and Sean Lee — who explore the theme of self and identity through a visual medium.last_img read more

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Dance up

first_imgGym work out  getting boring? Try Masala Bhangra! This latest fitness fad stems from India but got its current form in the west. Labelled as one of the top five workouts in the world, the Masala Bhangra Workout is derived from two Indian words: Masala and Bhangra. Anyone who has grown up listening to Punjabi music, particularly the beat of the dhol, will have their feet tapping with this Masala Bhangra workout. This workout is based on traditional Punjabi Bhangra. It is a complete cardiovascular workout that blends traditional Bhangra dance steps with the exhilaration of Bollywood moves. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’‘The interesting thing that has come to forefront is, that Delhiities are lapping up this latest fitness trend. The major reason behind this interest is that majority of the Delhiities are Punjabi and love to live life to the fullest. Dancing is an integral part of Delhi culture, be it marriages, functions or normal get-togethers – dancing is a must!’ says SwatiChatterjee, Director of  RDX Gym and Spa. Masala Bhangra is not just any other program but is a certified fitness program supported by the fitness boards and devised by Sarina Jain. It has been the only Indian fitness workout, besides Yoga, that is internationally recognised and accepted by everyone. Right now 15 countries have adopted this fitness regime. It is heartening to see Japanese and Kuwaiti women dancing to the beats of Bhangra. The trainers are generally called Masala Bhangra Ambassadors, as they not only teach a dance fitnessworkout but also promote the Indian culture! Head over and try it out.last_img read more

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Implementation of detention system soon

first_imgKolkata: Union minister for Human Resource Development Prakash Javadekar expressed his optimism over the implementation of detention system from the 2019 academic session. “I am hopeful that the Bill regarding detention-no detention will be passed in Parliament in July and will be readied by the month of August. From March 2019 onwards, the states who are willing to introduce detention can do it in Class V and VIII,” Javadekar said at a press conference on Saturday. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsHe attributed the delay in the passing of the Bill to the Congress and said: “The last session was washed out because of the Congress, otherwise it could have been passed in the Budget session itself.” According to the minister, the Centre has allowed the states to exercise their discretion on whether they should allow detention or continue with no detention policy. “25 states including Bengal want detention. The others do not want, I respect their freedom,” he maintained. Responding to a poser on reducing the burden of bags for students, the minister said the NCERT syllabus which is so crammed will be soon reduced by half. “A student’s brain is not a data bank. It should be able to analyse, comprehend and communicate. We have received suggestions from 37,000 teachers class wise, subject wise and lesson wise. The process of framing a system of reducing the burden of the syllabus which will bring down the load of school bags is on. Some of it will be reduced in 2019 and some again in 2020,” he said. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedHe further added that the ministry is focusing on learning with fun to reduce the pressure of studies. “We will be giving a grant of Rs 20,000 to each government school across the country for libraries and Rs 5,000 to Rs 20,000 grant to every school for building up sports infrastructure,” Javadekar said. He maintained that the National Testing Agency will be soon getting a new chairman and it will start taking examinations like Joint Entrance Exam (JEE) and NEET right from the 2019 academic year.last_img read more

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Tata Steel workers march to save Scottish plants

first_imgTata Steel workers from two of the Indian steel giant’s Scottish plants set to be mothballed took out a march in an attempt to save them from closure. The workers, joined by councillors and Labour party members, are calling for action by the Scottish and UK governments to protect the steel industry and its jobs, days after Britain’s biggest steelmaker announced the lay-off under a restructuring deal. Up to 270 jobs could be lost under Tata Steel’s plans to mothball Dalzell and Clydebridge steel plants along with 900 posts at the firm’s facility in Scunthorpe. A total of 225 jobs are threatened at the Dalzell plate- rolling works in Motherwell, along with 45 posts at the Clydebridge plant in Cambuslang region of Scotland.  Also Read – Punjab & Sind Bank cuts MCLR by up to 20 basis pointsTata, along with a number of other steel companies operating in Europe, has blamed cheap Chinese imports and high energy costs for a collapse in steel prices. Community union representative Derek Fearon said: “We are trying to raise awareness of the campaign, and hopefully through this Tata will become a responsible seller.“The main aim of the taskforce, the priority of it, is for the two plants to remain open. The mood is upbeat, the guys are still positive that everything can be done for the two plants to be saved.”  The Scottish government has pledged to do everything possible to keep the plants operational, with its preferred option being to find a buyer.last_img read more

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Aggressive adults experience memory problems later in life

first_imgIf you want to stay sane and not become forgetful in later life, keep calm and relax. A new study has revealed that young adults who are hostile or cope badly with stress are more likely to experience memory and thinking problems decades later.The study found that people with the highest levels of hostile attitude and poor coping skill traits performed significantly worse on tests of thinking and memory skills 25 years later than people with the lowest levels of the traits. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’“We may not think of our personality traits as having any bearing on how well we think or remember things, but we found that the effect of having a hostile attitude and poor coping skills on thinking ability was similar to the effect of more than a decade of aging,” said study author Lenore J. Launer from the American Academy of Neurology in the US. The study, paper published in the online issue of journal Neurology, included 3,126 participants with the average age of 25. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixFor the analysis, participants were divided into four groups based on their level of hostility and effortful coping, and asked questions that measured their personalities and attitudes, and ability to cope with stress, memory and thinking abilities.Cognitive abilities were measured again when they were at an average age of 50.To measure hostility, the questions about personality assessed aggressive behaviour, a lack of trust for others and negative feelings associated with social relationships. Another question looked at effortful coping, which was defined as actively trying to reduce stress despite repeated barriers to success.  The results showed that when people were asked to recall a list of 15 words, people with the most hostility in young adulthood remembered 0.16 fewer words in mid-life than people with the least hostility. Those with the highest level of effortful coping remembered up to 0.30 fewer words than those with the lowest level of effortful coping.“The study is observational. It does not prove that hostile attitudes and poor coping skills cause memory and thinking impairment; it only shows the association,” Launer noted.last_img read more

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